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SCUBA DIVING

Key Largo Scuba Diving

 

For rates contact

Capt. Mick 305-451-2102


capt.mick2102@gmail.com


                                                                                           

Key Largo is a popular tourist destination and calls itself the "Diving Capital of the World". On the east of Key Largo are fish-covered coral formations of North America's only living coral barrier reef. Six miles offshore in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary you will find the wreck of the Spiegel Grove. There are many places to go to for Key Largo Scuba Diving, with the types of diving as diverse as the locations. What makes Key Largo Scuba Diving unique are the variety of choices and the ease of getting there.
Scuba (which stands for self-contained-underwater-breathing apparatus) has an air tank and other equipment which allows the diver to go deeper into the water. Key Largo has been protected from spearfishing and coral collection for four decades through undersea preservation programs. As a result, there are deep underwater areas that are perfect for tourist who love to scuba diving and see by their own eyes beauty of Key Largo underwater paradise.

Leaving Key Largo without scuba diving is NOT going to be one of your plans. There are so many beautiful scuba diving hot spots to show you. Our boat fleet is ready to take you and get ready to experience the most awesome scuba diving in Key Largo.

 Key Largo has had a long history of marine conservation where spear fishing and coral collection for four decades have been protected. Nowhere on earth has more friendly fish than Key Largo, creating an absolute underwater paradise for Key Largo Scuba Diving. 

Following are Key Largo Scuba Diving Spots:

  1. Statue of Christ of the Abyss
  2. Molasses Reef
  3. Benwood Wreck
  4. The Elbow
  5. Bibb and Duane
  6. Spiegel Grove
  7. USCG Duane

 

            

Scuba diving

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diving
Scuba diver

Scuba diving is a form of underwater diving in which a diver uses a scuba set to breathe underwater.[1]

Unlike earlier diving, which relied either on breath-hold or on air pumped from the surface, scuba divers carry their own source of breathing gas, (usually compressed air),[2] allowing them greater freedom of movement than with an air line. Both surface supplied and scuba diving allow divers to stay underwater significantly longer than with breath-holding techniques as used in free-diving.

A scuba diver usually moves around underwater by using swimfins attached to the feet, but external propulsion can be provided by a diver propulsion vehicle, or a sled pulled from the surface.

Contents

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History

Original Aqualung scuba set.
1: Air Hose, 2: Mouthpiece, 3: Regulator, 4: Harness, 5: Back plate, 6: Tank

The first commercially successful scuba sets were the Aqualung twin hose open-circuit units developed by Emile Gagnan and Jacques-Yves Cousteau, in which compressed air carried in back mounted cylinders is inhaled through a demand regulator and then exhaled into the water adjacent to the tank[3]. The single hose two stage scuba regulators of today trace their origins to Australia, where Ted Eldred developed the first example of this typeof regulator, known as the Porpoise, which was developed because patents protected the Aqualung's twin hose design. The single hose regulator separates the cylinder from the demand valve, giving the diver air at the pressure at his mouth, not that at the top of the cylinder.

The open circuit compressed air systems were developed after Cousteau had a number of incidents ofoxygen toxicity using an oxygen rebreather, in which exhaled oxygen is passed through an absorbent chemical to remove carbon dioxide before being breathed again. Modern versions of rebreather systems (both semi-closed circuit and closed circuit) are available, and form the second main type of scuba unit, mostly used for technical and military diving.

Etymology

The term "SCUBA" (an acronym for self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) originally referred to United States combat frogmen's oxygen rebreathers, developed during World War II by Christian J. Lambertsen for underwater warfare.[2][4][5]

"SCUBA" was originally an acronym, but is now generally used as a common noun or adjective, "scuba".[6] It has become acceptable to refer to "scuba equipment" or "scuba apparatus"—examples of the linguistic RAS syndrome.


Breathing underwater

Scuba diver on reef

Water normally contains the dissolved oxygen from which fish and other aquatic animals extract all their required oxygen as the water flows past their gills. Humans lack gills and do not otherwise have the capacity to breathe underwater unaided by external devices.[2] Although the feasibility of filling and artificially ventilating the lungs with a dedicated liquid (liquid breathing) has been established for some time,[9] the size and complexity of the equipment allows only for medical applications with current technology.[10]

Early diving experimenters quickly discovered it is not enough simply to supply air to breathe comfortably underwater. As one descends, in addition to the normal atmospheric pressure, water exerts increasing pressure on the chest and lungs—approximately 1 bar (14.7 pounds per square inch) for every 33 feet (10 m) of depth—so the pressure of the inhaled breath must almost exactly counter the surrounding or ambient pressure to inflate the lungs. It becomes virtually impossible to breathe unpressurised air through a tube below three feet under the water.[2]

By always providing the appropriate breathing gas at ambient pressure, modern demand valve regulators ensure the diver can inhale and exhale naturally and without excessive effort, regardless of depth.

Because the diver's nose and eyes are covered by a diving mask; the diver cannot breathe in through the nose, except when wearing a full face diving mask. However, inhaling from a regulator'smouthpiece becomes second nature very quickly.

Open-circuit regulator

Aqualung Legacy regulator
Gekko dive computer with attached pressure gauge and compass

The most commonly used scuba set today is the "single-hose" open circuit 2-stage diving regulator, connected to a single high pressure gas cylinder, with the first stage connected to the cylinder valve and the second stage at the mouthpiece.[1] This arrangement differs from Emile Gagnan's andJacques Cousteau's original 1942 "twin-hose" design, known as the Aqua-lung, in which the cylinder pressure was reduced to ambient pressure in one or two stages which were all in the housing mounted to the cylinder valve or manifols. The "single-hose" system has significant advantages over the original system for most applications.

Aqualung 1st stage
Suunto pressure gauge close up

In the "single-hose" two-stage design, the first stage regulator reduces the cylinder pressure of up to about 240 bar (3000 psi) to an intermediate level of about 10 bar (145 psi) above ambient pressure. The second stage demand valve regulator, supplied by a low pressure hose from the first stage, delivers the breathing gas at ambient pressure to the diver's mouth. The exhaled gases are exhausted directly to the environment as waste. The first stage typically has at least one outlet port delivering breathing gas at unreduced tank pressure. This is connected to the diver's submersible pressure gauge or dive computer, to show how much breathing gas remains in the cylinder.

Rebreather

                                                     
An Inspiration electronic fully closed circuit rebreather

Less common are closed circuit (CCR) and semi-closed (SCR) rebreathers,[11] which unlike open-circuit sets that vent off all exhaled gases, process each exhaled breath for re-use by removing thecarbon dioxide and replacing the oxygen used by the diver.

Rebreathers release little or no gas bubbles into the water, and use much less stored gas volume for an equivalent depth and time because exhaled oxygen is recovered; this has advantages for research, military,[1] photography, and other applications. The first modern rebreather[citation needed] was the MK-19 that was developed at S-Tron by Ralph Osterhout and used the first electronic control system.[citation needed] Rebreathers are more complex and more expensive than open-circuit scuba, and special training and correct maintenance are required for them to be safely used, due to the larger variety of potential failure modes.[11]

In a closed-circuit rebreather the oxygen partial pressure in the rebreather is controlled, so it can be increased to a safe continuous maximum, which reduces the inert gas (nitrogen and/or helium) partial pressure in the breathing loop. Minimising the inert gas loading of the diver's tissues for a given dive profile reduces the decompression obligation. This requires continuous monitoring of actual partial pressures with time and for maximum effectiveness requires real-time computer processing by the diver's decompression computer. Decompression can be much reduced compared to fixed ratio gas mixes used in other scuba systems and, as a result, divers can stay down longer or decompress faster. A semi-closed circuit rebreather injects a constant flow of a fixed nitrox mixture into the breathing loop, or changes a fixed percentage of the respired volume, so the partial pressure of oxygen at any time during the dive depends on the diver's oxygen consumption or breathing rate. Planning decompression requirements requires a more conservative approach for a SCR than for a CCR, but decompression computers with a real time oxygen partial pressure input can optimise decompression for these systems.

Because rebreathers produce very few bubbles, they do not disturb marine life or make a diver’s presence known at the surface; this is useful for underwater photography, and for covert work.

Gas mixtures

A cylinder decal to indicate that the contents are a Nitrox mixture
                                                   
Nitrox cylinder marked up for use showing maximum safe operating depth (MOD)

For some diving, gas mixtures other than normal atmospheric air (21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, 1% trace gases) can be used,[1][2] so long as the diver is properly trained in their use. The most commonly used mixture is Nitrox, also referred to as Enriched Air Nitrox (EAN), which is air with extra oxygen, often with 32% or 36% oxygen, and thus less nitrogen, reducing the likelihood ofdecompression sickness or allowing longer exposure to the same pressure for equal risk. The reduced nitrogen may also allow for no stops or shorter decompression stop times and a shorter surface interval between dives. A common misconception is that nitrox can reduce narcosis, but research has shown that oxygen is also narcotic.[12][13]

Several other common gas mixtures are in use, and all need specialized training for safe use. The increased oxygen levels in nitrox help reduce the risk of decompression sickness; however, below themaximum operating depth of the mixture, the increased partial pressure of oxygen can lead to an unacceptable risk of oxygen toxicity. To displace nitrogen without the increased oxygen concentration, other diluents can be used, usually helium, when the resultant three gas mixture is called trimix, and when the nitrogen is fully substituted by helium, heliox.

For technical dives, some of the cylinders may contain different gas mixtures for the various phases of the dive, typically designated as Travel, Bottom, and Decompression gases. These different gas mixtures may be used to extend bottom time, reduce inert gas narcotic effects, and reducedecompression times.

Diver mobility

The diver needs to be mobile underwater. Streamlining dive gear will reduce drag and improve mobility. Personal mobility is enhanced by swimfins and Diver Propulsion Vehicles.

Controlling buoyancy underwater

                                                                                                                                            

                                                    
Diver under the Salt Pier in Bonaire.

To dive safely, divers must control their rate of descent and ascent in the water.[2] Ignoring other forces such as water currents and swimming, the diver's overall buoyancy determines whether he ascends or descends. Equipment such as diving weighting systems, diving suits (wet, dry or semi-dry suits are used depending on the water temperature) and buoyancy compensators can be used to adjust the overall buoyancy.[1] When divers want to remain at constant depth, they try to achieve neutral buoyancy. This minimizes gas consumption caused by swimming to maintain depth.

The buoyancy force on the diver is the weight of the volume of the liquid that he and his equipmentdisplace minus the weight of the diver and his equipment; if the result is positive, that force is upwards. The buoyancy of any object immersed in water is also affected by the density of the water. The density of fresh water is about 3% less than that of ocean water.[14] Therefore, divers who are neutrally buoyant at one dive destination (e.g. a fresh water lake) will predictably be positively or negatively buoyant when using the same equipment at destinations with different water densities (e.g. a tropical coral reef).

The removal ("ditching" or "shedding") of diver weighting systems can be used to reduce the diver's weight and cause a buoyant ascent in an emergency.

Diving suits made of compressible materials decrease in volume as the diver descends, and expand again as the diver ascends, causing buoyancy changes. Diving in different environments also necessitates adjustments in the amount of weight carried to achieve neutral buoyancy. The diver can inject air into dry suits to counteract the compression effect and squeeze. Buoyancy compensators allow easy and fine adjustments in the diver's overall volume and therefore buoyancy. For open circuitdivers, changes in the diver's average lung volume during a breathing cycle can be used to make fine adjustments of buoyancy.

Neutral buoyancy in a diver is a metastable state. It is changed by small differences in ambient pressure caused by a change in depth, and the change has a positive feedback effect. A small descent will increase the pressure, which will compress the gas filled spaces and reduce the total volume of diver and equipment. This will further reduce the buoyancy, and unless counteracted, will result in sinking more rapidly. The equivalent effect applies to a small ascent, which will trigger an increased buoyancy and will result in accelerated ascent unless counteracted. The diver must continuously adjust buoyancy or depth in order to remain neutral. This is a skill which improves with practice until it becomes second nature.

 

For rates contact

Capt. Mick 305-451-2102


capt.mick2102@gmail.com


                                                                                           

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Snorkeling

Scuba Diving



 

Charter Fishing Trips
       Specializing in;     

TARPON      

Tarpon


  

RED FISH

Tarpon 


 

SNOOK

SNOOK 


 

   

BARRACUDA 

BARRACUDA 




MUTTON SNAPPER

MUTTON SNAPPER 



SPOTTED SEA TROUT 

spotted sea trout 

 

 

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Perfect Gift to give a love one, no better way but being on the water !!